 In the last course entry, we look at how to use the serial monitor to control the colour of an RGB LED. Today we will be looking at how to control servos (or motor servos) using a potentiometer. With this, we will be able to learn how to point a sensor in one direction to obtain information on a specific area. To do this, we will take a look at some new concepts, analogue reading and the map function, which will be explained later.

## List of materials

• ZUM BT-328 controller board or one compatible with Arduino
• Servo
• Potentiometer

## Electrical connections

Connecting the modules for this project is very easy, all we need to do is connect the servo to a pin with PWM output and the potentiometer to an analogue input. You can see a connection diagram below: ## The code

We will start off with a super simple example which we can make more complicated later on.

### Moving the servo to the position indicated by the potentiometer

First we will write the entire code, so that we can then look closely at it bit  by bit.

Let´s start by including the Servo library and declaring the variables of the pins:

The Servo library is specifically for this type of motor. Most servos allow movements between 0 and 180º. If you want to find out more about the Servo library, you can check the Arduino reference page.

#### Setup() function

In this function, we indicate that the servo is connected to digital pin 10.

#### Loop() function

This is the function in which the task is carried out. The following steps must be followed.

1. We read the value of the potentiometer. If it is an analogue input, the value will be between 0 and 1023. We use the analogRead() function.
2. We transform the value between 0 and 1023 into a value between 0 and 180, using the map() function. The map function converts a variable from the original range to the target range, meaning a variable in an A-B interval will move to a C-D interval, maintaining the relative position of the original range to the target range. You can find out more about map on the reference page.
3. We instruct the servo to move to the position obtained between 0 and 180.
4. We stop executing the program for 500 ms. We do this to prevent the servo from constantly changing position, which means that our program will be less reactive, but more stable.

Here is the code:

### Moving the servo to the position indicated by the potentiometer, without sudden movements

In the next example we will carry out the same task, but we will force the servo to move forward in small steps of 1 degree every 10 milliseconds. This way we can avoid any sudden jumps caused by abrupt movement of the potentiometer. After the initial declaration:

Then we will declare the variables needed to correctly execute the program:

Now we will use the setup function to start the program:

In the setup function, we start the Serial library, we mark the potentiometer as input and we tell the program which pin is connected to the servo. Then we send a message to the user saying that the program is ready to run. Here we can see the loop function in full:

Within the loop function, first we will take readings from the potentiometer, then we use the map function to “translate” the reading of the potentiometer to one angle. Then we print the information of the angle on the serial monitor:

In contrast to digital reading, analogue reading allows us to distinguish between values from 0 to 5 volts. ZUM and Arduino boards generally include a 10-bit analogue-digital converter, which means the range we can obtain is 0-1023. You can find out more about analogRead here. Then we move on to modifying the position of the servo, selecting from one of two scenarios:

• The value that the servo will move to is higher than the current one, so we have to increase the position:

• The value that the servo will move to is lower than the current one, so we have to decrease the position:

Finally, we save the value of the position of the servo and we pause the execution of the program for a second: